Tagged Sugar

Baking as a Mindful Break From Zoom School

Sadie Radinsky uses baking as an opportunity for mindfulness.
Sadie Radinsky uses baking as an opportunity for mindfulness.Credit…Jackie Radinsky

Baking as a Mindful Break From Zoom School

How making healthful treats helped me enjoy desserts again.

Sadie Radinsky uses baking as an opportunity for mindfulness.Credit…Jackie Radinsky

  • Feb. 9, 2021, 5:00 a.m. ET

Have you ever watched the face of a toddler with an ice cream cone? The first bite, cold and messy and sweet, is a pure delight.

Desserts bring joy. But for many girls, somewhere along the line, that joy gets squelched — replaced by stress and fear.

“This shift usually begins around middle school,” says Lucie Hemmen, a psychologist based in Santa Cruz, Calif., who specializes in my demographic: teenage girls. By that age, she said, we start absorbing our culture’s weird tension around eating, especially with desserts.

The negative messages bombard us from every direction. On TV, female characters say they shouldn’t eat dessert. Ads show women denying themselves the treats they want because they’re “sinful.” Friends and family members comment on our appetite. Boys are affected by cultural messages, too, but girls especially seem to be told that we’re either eating too much or too little, or the wrong foods, or that we should be “detoxing” instead.

This is like shaming us for breathing.

But I’ve stumbled onto a powerful secret: Some treats can actually be our friends, and not just because they are the only ones we can safely hang out with during a lockdown. We can bake our own delicious desserts that are good for us, in every sense — nourishing our bodies and spirits.

I discovered healthful baking when I was 9. I had started getting mysterious stomach aches that often kept me in bed all day. After missing half of fourth grade and visiting doctor after doctor, I still didn’t know what was wrong. As a last resort, my parents decided I should try going gluten-free. It worked. Within a few months, all my symptoms were gone. But there was one major problem. At the time, there were no good gluten-free desserts in stores. This meant I was missing out on my favorite food group: baked goods.

So, I started creating my own, using ingredients like almond flour, dark chocolate and coconut milk. They were grain-free, and low in sugar. Much to my surprise — and my family’s — these treats tasted better than conventional desserts. Because they were less sweet, more flavor came through. We could truly taste the strawberry, the chocolate or the cinnamon when they weren’t overwhelmed by sugar. And I actually felt good after eating them! It was a revelation.

The grain-free, low-sugar baked goods I make are filled with protein and saturated fats like butter and coconut oil. Although the conventional wisdom is that butter is associated with cardiovascular disease, some experts argue that butter is actually nutritious, and that it’s sugar that we should be avoiding.

The author mixes arrowroot starch and a little coconut sugar into cookie dough.
The author mixes arrowroot starch and a little coconut sugar into cookie dough.Credit…Jackie Radinsky

Nina Teicholz, author of “The Big Fat Surprise,” maintains that the usual thinking about saturated fat is “completely upside-down and backward.” Studies show that foods high in protein and fat leave us feeling satiated, Ms. Teicholz says. Ideally, we should tune in to our hunger levels and stop eating when we’re full. But traditional treats are high in sugar — which can have the opposite effect, leaving us more hungry and craving more sweets after eating them, according to Gary Taubes, author of “The Case Against Sugar.”

But after having a low-sugar dessert, we feel satisfied.

Creating — and eating — these new treats became my favorite part of life. And as I have blogged and posted about baking on social media, I’ve found that many others — especially young women — share my joy.

In the pandemic in particular, baking is an opportunity for mindfulness.

The gentle clinking of my whisk on the mixing bowl pulls me into the present moment. This is my meditation. In the kitchen, surrounded by scattered chocolate chips and splashes of melted butter, there are no screens to grab my attention. I am attuned to the sensations of the process. Rolling the cookie dough into balls. Flattening them out with my palm. I am here, now, and everything else drops away.

As a freshman at “Zoom University,” I know how exhausting it is to spend hour after hour online, every day, eyes glued to the bright screen. Dr. Hemmen points out that this can make us feel disconnected from ourselves. Many of her teen clients “don’t feel real, because they’re so overstimulated by the technology.”

When we crack our eggs into the mixing bowl and beat them to a froth, we feel real again. We are drawn back into the physical world, back into our bodies.

Because we’re in the moment while baking, it also gets us in touch with our emotions. A few days ago, I was creating a new brownie recipe. While chopping up chocolate, I realized there were tears rolling down my cheeks. I’d just finished reading a news article that had really upset me. The emotion seeped into the brownies as I added more cocoa and a spoonful of strong coffee.

You know how an intense shared experience with a friend always brings the two of you closer together? Baking is like that. Getting our hands in ingredients, infusing them with our emotions, and turning them into something delicious creates a bond between us and the food. The finished product becomes more than an item on a plate.

After this slow, mindful process in the kitchen, the experience of eating becomes mindful, too. When we sit down to our desserts, we receive them as gift. We savor every part of that gift bec­ause we feel all the care we put into it.

The other day, I made a grain-free peanut butter chocolate chip skillet cookie. As I pulled it out of the oven, the scent of vanilla wafted up. I sank my spoon into the center of the giant cookie and took a bite. The nuttiness mingled with the bittersweet chocolate chips, which melted on my tongue. My stomach was happy and so were my spirits.

Sadie Radinsky is a freshman at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of “Whole Girl: Live Vibrantly, Love Your Entire Self, and Make Friends with Food.”

Can Technology Help Us Eat Better?

Can Technology Help Us Eat Better?

A new crop of digital health companies is using blood glucose monitors to transform the way we eat.

Credit…Leann Johnson
Anahad O’Connor

  • Feb. 8, 2021, 5:00 a.m. ET

A new crop of digital health companies is offering consumers an unusual way to transform the way they eat, with the promise of improving metabolic health, boosting energy levels and achieving a personalized road map to better health. Their pitch: Find the foods that are best for you by seeing how they impact your blood sugar levels.

The companies, which include Levels, Nutrisense and January, provide their customers continuous glucose monitors — sleek, wearable devices that attach to your arm and measure your body’s glucose levels 24 hours a day, no skin pricks required. The devices transmit that data to your smartphone, allowing you to see in real time how your glucose levels are affected by your diet, sleep, exercise and stress levels.

The devices can show users in real time which of their favorite foods and snacks can make their blood sugar levels spike and crash, leaving them feeling tired and sluggish after meals. They can reveal how engaging in regular exercise, or simply going for a short walk after a big meal, helps to improve blood sugar control. And for some people, the devices can provide warning signs that they may be at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and other forms of metabolic disease.

Continuous glucose monitors were originally developed decades ago to help people with diabetes manage their blood sugar. For people with Type 1 diabetes, the devices, which require a doctor’s prescription, are considered the standard of care, freeing them from the burden of having to prick their fingers multiple times a day to check their blood sugar. But now digital health companies are using the devices to market programs that tap into the growing demand for personalized nutrition, a multibillion-dollar industry.

“We’ve had trackers for many other things like sleep, stress and fitness,” said Dr. Casey Means, a surgeon who co-founded Levels and serves as its chief medical officer. “But a continuous glucose monitor measures an internal biomarker like a tiny lab on our arms. This is the first time it’s been used for a mainstream population for the specific purpose of making lifestyle decisions.”

While most people know that eating sugary junk foods like cookies, cake and soda can wreak havoc on their blood sugar levels, studies show that people can have a wide range of responses to many foods. In one intriguing study from 2015, researchers in Israel followed 800 adults for a week, using continuous glucose monitors to track their glucose levels. They found that even when people ate identical foods — such as bread and butter or chocolate — some people had substantial blood sugar spikes while others did not. The researchers concluded that a variety of factors unique to every person, such as your weight, genetics, gut microbiome, lifestyle and insulin sensitivity, determine how you respond to different foods.

In general, health authorities consider a healthy fasting blood sugar level — measured after an overnight fast — to be below 100 milligrams per deciliter. It is normal for blood sugar to rise after meals. But in a 2018 study, researchers at Stanford found that when they had 57 adults wear continuous glucose monitors for two weeks, many people considered “healthy” by normal standards saw their blood sugar soar to diabetic levels on frequent occasions, a signal that they might be on the road to developing Type 2 diabetes. Other research shows that such large blood sugar swings are linked to heart disease and chronic inflammation, which is increasingly thought to underlie a wide range of age-related ailments, from heart disease, diabetes and cancer to arthritis, depression and dementia.

“The nice thing about using a C.G.M. is that it’s an early way of catching what’s going on, and it gives you a chance to change your behavior before you’re diabetic,” said Michael Snyder, a senior author of the 2018 study and a professor in genetics at Stanford.

Nationwide, about 88 million adults, or more than one in three Americans, have pre-diabetes, a precursor to Type 2 diabetes that causes chronically high blood sugar levels. But according to the federal government, more than 84 percent of people with the condition do not know that they have it.

Dr. Snyder’s research led him to co-found January. The company provides its customers with continuous glucose monitors and then uses artificial intelligence to help them make decisions about what to eat, including predictions about how they might react to different foods before they even eat them.

The programs, which are not covered by insurance, are not cheap. The starting price for Levels is $395, which includes a telemedicine consultation and two Abbott FreeStyle Libre glucose monitors that are programmed to run for 14 days each. Nutrisense offers its customers a variety of packages that range in price from $175 for a two-week program to $160 a month for an 18-month commitment. And January charges $288 for its “Season of Me” introductory program that includes two glucose monitors, a heart rate monitor, and access to the company’s app for three months.

But are they worth it?

To get a better sense, I signed up to use the Levels program for one month. As a health reporter who writes about nutrition, I try to follow a fairly healthy diet and exercise regimen with plenty of fresh foods and few junk foods or sugary snacks, so I wasn’t expecting to learn much from the program. But I kept an open mind.

To get started, I filled out a brief health questionnaire online. Then Levels shipped me two FreeStyle Libre glucose monitors, which were prescribed by a doctor affiliated with the company. As instructed, I attached the device — a small patch with a tiny sensor about the size of a human hair — to the back of my arm. The sensor measures “interstitial fluid” beneath the skin, which it uses to estimate blood sugar levels.

The monitor helped me identify foods that I had no idea were spiking my blood sugar, like protein bars and chickpea pasta. But through trial and error, it also helped me find alternatives. One day I ate a salad with grilled salmon and noticed that it caused my blood sugar to soar. I soon realized why: I had drenched my salad in balsamic vinegar, which, it turns out, contains a lot of sugar. The next day I repeated the meal but with red wine vinegar, which contains no sugar. The result? My continuous glucose monitor showed there was no blood sugar spike or crash.

Dr. Means said that people are often surprised to learn just how much sugar is hiding in their foods, especially in things like sauces, condiments and dressings. But not everyone is the same, and people learn tricks, such as pairing carbs with protein or fats — for example, by adding almond butter to oatmeal or an apple — to blunt the blood sugar response to certain foods.

The monitor also reinforced the value of exercise. I noticed on days when I went for a run, or even a 15-minute walk, that the physical activity helped to keep my blood sugar in a steady range after meals.

I reached out to Dr. Aaron Neinstein, an endocrinologist at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Neinstein prescribes continuous glucose monitors to most of his patients with diabetes and has used them himself to monitor his blood sugar and make changes to his diet. By wearing a C.G.M. he found, for example, that a particular type of soup that he regularly ate at his hospital cafeteria was causing a “surprisingly sustained elevation” in his blood sugar levels, leading him to cut back on it.

Dr. Neinstein said there was evidence from rigorous studies that wearing a C.G.M. benefits people with Type 1 diabetes, leading to improved blood sugar control. He predicted that by 2025 every person with any form of diabetes would be using a C.G.M. But he said he hoped there would be more research looking into whether they can improve health in people without diabetes before they become more widely adopted by the general public.

“Anecdotally, I have seen it have benefit in people without diabetes,” he said. “But I think it’s really important that it be rigorously tested. It’s an expense to people and to the health care system, so we really do need to have evidence of benefit.”

Dr. Neinstein said he encourages people who try programs like Levels to treat their glucose devices as part of a personal science experiment.

“There is so much unhealthy food all around us, and we’re in an epidemic of metabolic disease,” he said. “If people can use these devices to test different foods and get a little feedback on what are the behaviors that are making them less healthy, then that seems like a valuable thing to me.”

Cutting Sugar Rapidly Improves Heart Health Markers

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Obese children who cut sugar from their diets saw improvements in markers of heart disease after just nine days, a study in Atherosclerosis found.

For the study, researchers evaluated 37 children ages 9 to 18 who were obese and at high risk for heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. The children were given food and drinks totaling the same number of calories, fat, protein and carbohydrates as their typical diets.

The only change was their sugar intake: The researchers swapped foods high in added sugars, like pastries and sweetened yogurts, for options like bagels and pizza. This lowered dietary sugar from 28 percent to 10 percent, and fructose from 12 percent to 4 percent of total calories.

After nine days, the researchers found a 33 percent drop in triglycerides, a type of fat tied to heart disease; a 49 percent reduction in a protein called apoC-III that is tied to high triglyceride levels; and dramatic reductions in small, dense LDL cholesterol, a risk factor for heart disease.

Though this study is small and short-term, it builds on this group’s previous research implicating added sugars as a contributor to metabolic disorders and heart disease.

“Sugar calories are not like other carbohydrate calories,” said Dr. Robert Lustig, a co-author of the study and professor of pediatrics at Benioff Children’s Hospital at the University of California, San Francisco. “Without changing total carbohydrate, or fat, or protein, we were able to accomplish this enormous improvement in their cardiovascular risk factors,” unrelated to weight loss, he said.

Is Sugar Really Bad for You? It Depends

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Credit iStock

The federal government’s decision to update food labels last month marked a sea change for consumers: For the first time, beginning in 2018, nutrition labels will be required to list a breakdown of both the total sugars and the added sugars in packaged foods. But is sugar really that bad for you? And is the sugar added to foods really more harmful than the sugars found naturally in foods?

We spoke with some top scientists who study sugar and its effects on metabolic health to help answer some common questions about sugar. Here’s what they had to say.

Why are food labels being revised?

The shift came after years of urging by many nutrition experts, who say that excess sugar is a primary cause of obesity and heart disease, the leading killer of Americans. Many in the food industry opposed the emphasis on added sugars, arguing that the focus should be on calories rather than sugar. They say that highlighting added sugar on labels is unscientific, and that the sugar that occurs naturally in foods like fruits and vegetables is essentially no different than the sugar commonly added to packaged foods. But scientists say it is not that simple.

So, is added sugar different from the naturally occurring sugar in food?

It depends. Most sugars are essentially combinations of two molecules, glucose and fructose, in different ratios. The sugar in a fresh apple, for instance, is generally the same as the table sugar that might be added to homemade apple pie. Both are known technically as sucrose, and they are broken down in the intestine into glucose and fructose. Glucose can be metabolized by any cell in the body. But fructose is handled almost exclusively by the liver.

“Once you get to that point, the liver doesn’t know whether it came from fruit or not,” said Kimber Stanhope, a researcher at the University of California, Davis, who studies the effects of sugar on health.

The type of sugar that is often added to processed foods is high-fructose corn syrup, which is the food industry’s favored sweetener for everything from soft drinks to breads, sauces, snacks and salad dressings. Made commercially from cornstarch, high-fructose corn syrup is generally much cheaper than regular sugar. It contains the same components as table sugar – glucose and fructose – but in slightly different proportions.

What about “natural” sweeteners?

Food companies like to market agave nectar, beet sugar, evaporated cane juice and many other “natural” sweeteners as healthier alternatives to high-fructose corn syrup. But whatever their source, they are all very similar. To suggest one is healthier than another is a stretch, experts say. In fact, last month, the F.D.A. urged food companies to stop using the term evaporated cane juice because it is “false or misleading” and “does not reveal that the ingredient’s basic nature and characterizing properties are those of a sugar.”

Is high-fructose corn syrup worse than regular sugar? How is it different?

High-fructose corn syrup and regular sugar are so similar that most experts say their effects on the body are essentially the same.

The main difference is that the variety of high-fructose corn syrup used in soft drinks tends to have more fructose. In one 2014 study, researchers analyzed more than a dozen popular soft drinks and found that many sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup – including Pepsi, Sprite, Mountain Dew, Coca-Cola and Arizona Iced Tea – contained roughly 40 percent glucose and 60 percent fructose. Regular sugar contains equal parts glucose and fructose.

Why doesn’t the F.D.A. require that added sugars be listed in teaspoons rather than grams?

When the new food labels go into effect, the daily recommended limit for added sugars will be 50 grams, or roughly 12 teaspoons, daily. (One teaspoon of sugar is 4.2 grams.) But the new food labels will list the amount of added sugars solely in grams.

Many nutrition advocates have urged the F.D.A. to require that food labels list added sugars in both teaspoons and grams on food labels, arguing that Americans often underestimate the actual amount of sugar in a product when it’s expressed in grams alone.

But the F.D.A. ultimately sided with the food industry, which opposed the teaspoon proposal.

“It would be difficult, if not impossible, for a manufacturer to determine the volume contribution that each ingredient provides toward the added sugars declaration,” the agency said. “For example, a cookie made with white chocolate chips and dried fruit would have added sugars in the form of sugar in the batter as well as in the white chocolate chips and the dried fruit.” The F.D.A. also said that requiring both grams and teaspoons would “cause clutter and make the labels more difficult to read.”

But Michael Jacobson, the president of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, an advocacy group that had petitioned the F.D.A. to require the teaspoon measurement, said the agency was under enormous pressure from the food industry, “which knows that consumers would be far more concerned about a product labeled 10 teaspoons than 42 grams.”

So what’s the issue with added sugars?

It mainly comes down to the way they’re packaged.

Naturally occurring sugar is almost always found in foods that contain fiber, which slows the rate at which the sugar is digested and absorbed. (One exception to that rule is honey, which has no fiber.) Fiber also limits the amount of sugar you can consume in one sitting.

A medium apple contains about 19 grams of sugar and four grams of fiber, or roughly 20 percent of a day’s worth of fiber. Not many people would eat three apples at one time. But plenty of children and adults can drink a 16-ounce bottle of Pepsi, which has 55 grams of added sugar – roughly the amount in three medium apples – and no fiber. Fiber not only limits how much you can eat, but how quickly sugar leaves the intestine and reaches the liver, Dr. Stanhope said.

“You can’t easily eat that much sugar from fruit,” she said. “But nobody has any problem consuming a very high level of sugar from a beverage or from brownies and cookies.”

Why is it a problem to have too much sugar?

Many nutrition experts say that sugar in moderation is fine for most people. But in excess it can lead to metabolic problems beyond its effects on weight gain. The reason, studies suggest, is fructose. Any fructose you eat is sent straight to your liver, which specializes in turning it into droplets of fat called triglycerides.

“When you ingest fructose, almost all of it is metabolized by the liver, and the liver is very good at taking that fructose and converting it to fat,” said Dr. Mark Herman, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard. Studies show a predictable response when people are asked to drink a sugary beverage: A rapid spike in the amount of triglycerides circulating in their bloodstreams. This also leads to a reduction in HDL cholesterol, the so-called good kind.

Over time, this combination – higher triglycerides and lower HDL – is one major reason sugar promotes heart disease, said Dr. Aseem Malhotra, a cardiologist and adviser to the United Kingdom’s national obesity forum. This sequence of events may even overshadow the effects of LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad kind.

“What many people don’t realize is that it’s triglycerides and HDL that are more predictive of cardiovascular disease than LDL cholesterol,” Dr. Malhotra said. “I’m not saying LDL isn’t important. But if there is a hierarchy, triglycerides and HDL are more important than LDL.”

Dr. Malhotra said that when people reduce their sugar intake, “their overall cholesterol profile improves.”

“I see this in so many of my patients,” he added. “The effects are rapid.”

How much sugar is too much?

One of the largest studies of added sugar consumption, which was led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, found that adults who got more than 15 percent of their daily calories from added sugar had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. For the average adult, that translates to about 300 calories, or 18 teaspoons of added sugar, daily. That may not sound like a lot. But considering that a single 12-ounce can of Coca-Cola has almost 10 teaspoons of sugar, it can add up quickly

The study found that most adults got more than 10 percent of their daily calories from added sugar, and that for 10 percent of people, more than 25 percent of their calories came from added sugar. The biggest sources for adults were soft drinks, fruit juices, desserts and candy.

While those might seem like obvious junk foods, Dr. Malhotra said, about half of the sugar Americans consume is “hidden” in less obvious places like salad dressings, bread, low-fat yogurt and ketchup. In fact, of the 600,000 food items for sale in America, about 80 percent contain added sugar.

Everyone’s tolerance for sugar is different. Studies show, for example, that people who are already obese may be more susceptible to metabolic harm from sugar than others. But Dr. Malhotra said that he generally advises people to follow the World Health Organization’s guidelines, which recommend that adults and children consume no more than about six teaspoons daily of added sugar.

“Could I tell you the exact limit where sugar starts to definitely impact cardiovascular health?” he said. “That’s difficult. But I think if people stick within the W.H.O. limits, then their risk is reduced.”

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Dr. Thomas Farley Takes on Big Food and Big Tobacco

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Credit Dan Deitch

A century ago, most local health departments concentrated their efforts on fighting infectious diseases like cholera, polio and tuberculosis. But today, many health departments have a very different focus: cancer, heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, some of America’s leading killers. Fighting these diseases often means promoting changes in lifestyle and behavior, and no health department has done that more aggressively than New York City’s.

Under former Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, New York’s health commissioners — first Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, and then Dr. Thomas A. Farley — took on smoking, sugary drinks, sodium, trans fats and binge drinking. Those battles weren’t always successful. A state court struck down the city’s controversial soda tax initiative, and critics complained that New York City was becoming a “nanny” state.

But Dr. Farley, who served as New York’s health commissioner from 2009 to 2014, says the city’s efforts helped demonstrate that the key to eradicating lifestyle-related diseases is by changing environments — making bad choices harder and good ones easier. He makes a case for this approach in his latest book, “Saving Gotham: Billionaire Mayor, Activist Doctors, and the Fight for Eight Million Lives,” which shares the behind-the-scenes story of the Bloomberg administration’s radical approach to fighting chronic disease.

Dr. Farley, who later served as the Joan H. Tisch Distinguished Fellow in Public Health at Hunter College and chief executive of the Public Good Projects, is now the health commissioner of Philadelphia, where earlier this month the mayor proposed a soda tax as a way to fund schools, libraries, and parks and recreation centers. Recently we caught up with Dr. Farley to talk about his book, his battles with the beverage industry and how his approach to public health may have influenced other health departments around the world. Here are edited excerpts from our conversation.

Q.

Why did you write your latest book, “Saving Gotham”?

A.

I wanted to show that there’s a way to fight disease other than through expensive medical care. In the United States, we spend roughly twice as much per capita for medical care as other high-income countries, and our health statistics are close to last. People naturally assume we’re going to solve this problem through medical care. But it doesn’t fit with those statistics. There’s a different approach — a public health approach — that costs very little. The book tells the story of how with using that public health approach we were able to prevent the leading causes of death and save many lives.

Q.

As New York City’s health commissioner you led many public health campaigns. Which had the most impact?

A.

I would say it was our efforts to reduce smoking. During the time of the Bloomberg administration, smoking rates fell by about 25 percent in New York. Since then they’ve fallen by about a third. That’s about 400,000 fewer smokers. And that alone should save thousands if not tens of thousands of lives. At the same time, sugary drink consumption fell by about a third, and heart disease mortality fell by about 40 percent.

Q.

Did these efforts ultimately translate into an increase in life expectancy?

A.

Absolutely. During the Bloomberg years, life expectancy at birth in New York City increased by about 3.2 years. During the same period, life expectancy in the U.S. as a whole increased by 1.8 years. So we were fast outpacing the rest of the country, and that increase in life expectancy was bigger than it was in any other big city in America.

Q.

Some of your health initiatives created a lot of controversy. Where did you find the most resistance?

A.

There was controversy, but most of the resistance came from industry. In the book, I show how some of the biggest risks today are coming from companies that make, sell and market products that over a lifetime make us sick, like cigarettes and sugary drinks.

When New York City passed the smoke-free air rule that made bars and restaurants smoke free, it was a radical idea. And that idea has now spread across most of the U.S. and almost all of Europe — so much so that it’s almost hard to imagine what it would be like to have smoking in a bar or restaurant. The book shows how those good ideas can quickly spread from one city to others, despite resistance from industry.

Q.

The beverage industry says that sugary drink taxes disproportionately hurt the poor economically. How do you respond?

A.

I would say that the poor are disproportionately suffering from obesity and Type 2 diabetes as a consequence of sugary drinks. They drink more sugary drinks now than people who have more money. Because people with lower incomes are more price-sensitive, they will disproportionately benefit from efforts to reduce sugary drink consumption.

Q.

The new soda tax proposal in Philadelphia was presented as a way to generate more revenue for the city, rather than as a “sin tax.” Do you think that will make it more appealing to the public?

A.

This is something that is central to the mayor’s agenda, and I think his way of approaching it is terrific. The revenue from the sugary drink tax will go for pre-K, for what they call community schools — which is providing services for children so they can stay in school and learn — and for rebuilding the city’s parks and recreation centers. All of those preferentially benefit people of lower income in Philadelphia. All of those are very popular and will benefit health over the long term. It’s a great way to match up the benefits of the tax revenue with a source of revenue that is also good for health.

Q.

You have spent a lot of time fighting the beverage industry. Have you seen any change in their response over the years?

A.

The beverage companies understand that they’re going to have to change the way that they do business. And they are making changes — but they’re not making changes fast enough. They still market very heavily these products that are major contributors to our health problems. In the end, they will move only as fast as we push them.

Q.

How did New York’s health initiatives impact the greater public health landscape?

A.

That was another theme I tried to bring out in the book. This is the story of a local health department reinventing itself to take on the biggest health problems of our time. Before the Bloomberg period, most local health departments were seen as organizations that did restaurant inspections and rat control. We showed that local health departments could take on smoking and make a meaningful difference in life expectancy. That model is now being copied by local health departments around the country. And that’s why I think local health departments are where you’re seeing public health innovation right now.

Q.

Are there any common misconceptions about the role of public health agencies that you have tried to dispel?

A.

A thing that people often don’t understand and that I hoped to show in the book is that health is political, but not in the way that most people think. If you ask most reporters about the politics of health, they’re going to talk about Obamacare. But as you saw in the book, the fights we faced over health were with the tobacco industry and with the food industry. I hope people read the book just for the story, because it’s a great story, but that in the end they will have learned the great value of public health.

Artificial Sweeteners and Weight Gain

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Credit Tony Cenicola/The New York Times

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Ask Well: The Sugar in Fruit

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Credit Andrew Scrivani for The New York Times

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Sophie Egan is the director of programs and culinary nutrition for strategic initiatives at the Culinary Institute of America. She is the author of the forthcoming book “Devoured: From Chicken Wings to Kale Smoothies — How What We Eat Defines Who We Are” (William Morrow, May 2016).

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