Tagged Shoes and Boots

Weekly Health Quiz: Covid Variants, Moderate Exercise and Coffee

1 of 7

A new variant of coronavirus, first identified in Britain, is spreading through the United States. Which statement about the new variant is not true?

The new variant is much more contagious than earlier forms of the coronavirus

The new variant is much more deadly than earlier forms of the virus

The new variant is expected to be the dominant form of the virus in the United States by March

Scientists believe current vaccines will be effective against the new variant

2 of 7

A new study compared high-intensity interval training with moderate workouts in sedentary, overweight men. Men who did moderate workouts showed this benefit:

They shed more body fat

They showed greater improvements in blood pressure

They were better able to metabolize fats in the diet

All of the above

3 of 7

Robotic-assisted surgery has shown the most gains in replacement of this joint:

Hip

Shoulder

Knee

Elbow

4 of 7

The United States reached a grim milestone in Covid-related deaths, which now exceed:

100,000

200,000

400,000

1 million

5 of 7

Men and women with pain and stiffness from knee arthritis showed the most improvements when they wore shoes that were:

Flat-soled and flexible

Stable, supportive and well-cushioned

Tightly laced with a low, broad heel

The type of footwear had little impact on symptoms of arthritis

6 of 7

Just one alcoholic drink a day was tied to an increased risk of this heart disorder:

Atrial fibrillation

Heart failure

Heart attack

High blood pressure

7 of 7

Men who drank coffee were at lower risk of this condition:

Erectile dysfunction

Prostate cancer

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Dementia

The Best Shoes for Knee Arthritis

The Best Shoes for Knee Arthritis May Be Stiff, Stable and Cushioned Ones

People with knee arthritis were less likely to report pain and stiffness if they wore stable, supportive shoes, versus flat-soled, flexible ones.

Nicholas Bakalar

  • Jan. 19, 2021, 5:00 a.m. ET

Some experts recommend flat, flexible shoes for people with knee osteoarthritis, whereas others say stable, supportive shoes are better. Now a randomized trial has found that the latter — a stiff and stable shoe with good cushioning — is better than a supple and bendable one.

Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder in the United States. According to one recent estimate, 14 million Americans suffer from the pain and stiffness of knee arthritis.

Australian researchers randomly assigned 164 men and women, average age 65, to wear either a flexible or stiff shoe for at least six hours a day for six months. Footwear in the flat shoe category included the Merrell Bare Access, the Vivobarefoot Primus Lite, the Vivobarefoot Mata Canvas, the Lacoste Marice and the Converse Dainty Low. In the stable supportive group, shoes included the ASICS Kayano, the Merrell Jungle Moc, the Rockport Edge Hill, the Nike Air Max 90 Ultra and the New Balance 624.

Before and after the study, the researchers administered questionnaires and scales measuring pain, function and comfort. The report is in Annals of Internal Medicine.

The researchers found that 58 percent of those wearing stable shoes achieved a clinically significant reduction in pain, compared with 40 percent wearing the flexible shoes. On assessments of function, 11 percent more stable shoe wearers reported improvements. Those who wore stable shoes were also less likely to report other problems: 15 percent of the stable shoe wearers reported such issues as knee swelling, ankle or foot pain, or pain in other parts of the body caused by the shoes, compared to 32 percent of those wearing flexible shoes.

The senior author, Rana S. Hinman, a professor of physiotherapy at the University of Melbourne, said that while a supportive shoe is helpful, it is not a substitute for other effective strategies like weight control and exercise.

Still, she said, “based on our clinical trial, people with knee osteoarthritis should choose to wear stable, supportive shoes with thicker cushioned soles, rather than flat shoes with thin, flexible soles that have no cushioning.”

Fitness 2020: The Year in Exercise Science

Phys Ed

2020: A Year in Fitness Like No Other

The novel coronavirus crept into and transformed every aspect of our lives, including the way we work out.

Credit…Getty Images
Gretchen Reynolds

  • Dec. 16, 2020, 5:00 a.m. ET

This year, the novel coronavirus crept into and transformed every aspect of our lives, including our fitness. In countless ways — some surprising, and a few beneficial and potentially lasting — it altered how, why and what we need from exercise.

At the start of the year, few of us expected a virus to upend our world and workouts. In January and February, I was writing about topics that seemed pressing at the time, such as whether low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets endanger athletes’ skeletal health; if fat-soled, maximalist running shoes might alter our strides; and how completing a marathon — remember those? — remodels first-time racers’ arteries.

The answers, by the way, according to the research, are that avoiding carbs for several weeks may produce early signs of declining bone health in endurance athletes; runners donning super-cushioned, marshmallowy shoes often strike the ground with greater force than if they wear skinnier pairs; and a single marathon renders new runners’ arteries more pliable and biologically youthful.

But concerns about shoe cushioning and racing tended to fade in March, when the World Health Organization declared Covid-19 a pandemic and we suddenly had new, top-of-the-mind worries, including social distancing, masks, aerosol spread and lockdowns.

The effects on our exercise routines seemed to be both immediate and stuttering. At that time, none of us knew quite how and whether to work out in these new circumstances. Should we still run, ride and stroll outside if our community had instituted stay-at-home restrictions? Did we need to wear a mask during exercise — and could we do so without feeling as if we were suffocating? Were communal drinking fountains safe?

My first column grappling with these and related topics appeared on March 19. The experts I spoke with then were adamant that we should aim to remain physically active during the pandemic — but avoid shared drinking fountains. They also pointed out, though, that many questions about the virus, including how to exercise safely, remained unresolved.

After that, our experience with — and the research about — Covid and exercise snowballed. A much-discussed April study, for instance, showed that brisk walking and running could alter and accelerate the flow of air around us, sending expired respiratory particles farther than if we stayed still. Consequently, the study concluded, runners and walkers should maintain 15 feet or more of social distance between themselves and others, more than double the standard six feet of separation then recommended. (Subsequent research found that outdoor activities were generally safe, though experts still suggest staying as far apart as is practical, and to wear a mask.)

Another cautionary study I wrote about in June tracked 112 Covid infections in South Korea that spring to Zumba classes. A few infected instructors introduced the virus to their students during close-quarter, indoor, exuberant classes. Some students carried it home, infecting dozens of their family members and friends. Most rapidly recovered. But the study’s story was disquieting. “Exercising in a gym will make you vulnerable to infectious disease,” one of its disease-detective authors told me.

Thankfully, other science about exercising in the time of Covid was more encouraging. In two recent experiments involving masked exercisers, researchers found that face coverings barely budged people’s heart rates, respirations or, after some initial getting used to, subjective sense of the workouts’ difficulty. Moving felt the same, whether participants wore masks or not. (I use a cloth mask or neck gaiter on all my hikes and runs now.)

More surprising, the pandemic seems to have nudged some people to start moving more, additional research found. An online survey of runners and other athletes in Junereported that most of these already active people said they were training more frequently now.

A separate British study, however, produced more-nuanced results. Using objective data from an activity-tracking phone app, its authors found that many of the older app users were up and walking more regularly after the pandemic began. But a majority of the younger, working-age adults, even if they had been active in the before times, sat almost all day now.

The long-range impacts of Covid on how often and in what ways we move are unsettled, of course, and I suspect will be the subject of considerable research in the years ahead. But, as someone who writes about, enjoys and procrastinates with exercise, the primary lesson of this year in exercise for me has been that fitness, in all its practical and evocative meanings, has never been so important.

In a useful study I wrote about in August, for instance, young, college athletes — all supremely fit — produced more antibodies to a flu vaccine than other healthy but untrained young people, a result that will keep me working out in anticipation of the Covid vaccine.

More poetically, in a mouse study I covered in September, animals that ran became much better able to cope later with unfamiliar trouble and stress than animals that had sat quietly in their cages.

And in perhaps my favorite study of the year, people who undertook “awe walks,” during which they deliberately sought out and focused on the small beauties and unexpected wonders along their way, felt more rejuvenated and happier afterward than walkers who did not cultivate awe.

In other words, we can dependably find solace and emotional — and physical — strength in moving through a world that remains lovely and beckoning. Happy, healthy holidays, everyone.

The Hazards of Ankle Sprains

Photo

Credit Paul Rogers

Many fashion-conscious women wear high heels to show off their legs. But in truth, given the extraordinarily high incidence of ankle sprains, we’d probably all be better off if we had thick stumps like an elephant’s to connect our feet to our legs.

Every day in the United States, about 28,000 people sprain an ankle. Too often the injury is dismissed as “just a sprain,” with no specific treatment and a return to full activity before it has completely healed. Fully 45 percent of all athletic injuries are ankle sprains, and players often go back into the game with little or no treatment as soon as the pain subsides.

In fact, according to the International Ankle Consortium, a global group of researchers and clinicians who study ankle injuries, 55 percent of people who sprain an ankle never seek professional treatment in the aftermath of the injury.

Yet the majority of ankle sprains are doomed to recur. That’s because they often result in a chronically unstable joint that tends to “give way,” poor balance, a distorted gait, difficulty exercising, weight gain, diminished quality of life and early arthritis. Not to mention the expense of dealing with health problems that can result from being overweight and sedentary living.

Sound scary? It should, says Phillip A. Gribble, an athletic trainer at the University of Kentucky and co-director of the International Ankle Consortium, who hopes that knowing the potential consequences of ankle injuries will prompt more people to treat them with respect and seek proper treatment. Even better, he said, would be if more people took steps to prevent injury in the first place. And that, ladies, may include leaving those spike heels in the store.

Dr. Gribble was one of several experts who recently presented the latest technical information on ankle sprains to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association meeting in Baltimore. In a study of 3,526 adults who responded to a questionnaire, more than half, or 1,843, had previously sustained an ankle injury. Those who had injured their ankles tended to weigh more, had greater limitations in their daily activities and were more likely to have cardiovascular or respiratory conditions than those who remained injury free.

While ankle sprains are most common among physically active people, especially amateur and professional sports players and dancers, the general public is hardly immune. The injury can result from walking on an uneven surface (especially while wearing high heels or platform shoes), misstepping off a curb or staircase, being pulled erratically by a dog on a leash, even playing around in the yard with children or friends.

It doesn’t take much. I know — years ago, I sustained two bad sprains, one stepping on a stick while trimming a hedge and the other missing the last step while exiting a plane in the dark. I am now extremely careful about where I walk and what I put on my feet, especially when hiking in the woods (boots are de rigueur).

Most ankle sprains result when the foot abruptly turns in under the leg so that the sole of that foot faces the opposite leg, unduly stretching the ligament on the outside of the ankle. The extent of the injury can range from a minor strain to a complete tear, and the rate and extent of healing can vary greatly.

In one report to the athletic trainers’ convention, 12 college students who had sprained an ankle still had an incompletely healed, overstretched ligament a year after the injury, which “may explain the high percentage of patients that develop chronic ankle instability,” said Tricia Hubbard-Turner of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

Even though fewer than half of ankle sprains receive medical attention, the injury is so common (an estimated incidence of 2.06 ankle sprains per 1,000 people a year) that it is the leading lower extremity injury that results in an emergency room visit, according to data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System.

As with any injury, ankle sprains are best prevented. One of the best approaches is to improve one’s balance with exercises that train the body to stay upright and maintain control in all kinds of positions. Dr. Gribble recommends spending time standing on one foot, at first on a firm surface, then with eyes closed, then on a soft surface like a pillow. As a final challenge, practice balancing on a wobble board, he said.

Muscles surrounding the ankle can be strengthened by wrapping a towel around the foot for resistance, then moving the foot up, down, in and out. Do stretching exercises that increase the flexibility of the legs, hip and torso to guard against any unanticipated awkward movements.

When participating in sports like basketball, soccer and tennis — which involve jumps or quick changes in direction that can put ankles at risk — consider taping or bracing the ankles to increase their stability.

Finally, avoid being a weekend warrior who indulges in a sport full tilt without adequate preparation. Build up gradually, practice the skills involved and make sure to keep needed muscles strong.

Should you sprain an ankle, avoid the all too common layman’s advice to “walk it off.” At a minimum, leave the game or whatever you were doing and avoid putting weight on that foot to give the injured joint adequate rest. If the injury is severe, you may need to use crutches.

If you do sprain an ankle, apply ice wrapped in a cloth for 15 to 20 minutes every two or three hours for two days, then once a day until pain and swelling are gone. Sit or lie down as much as possible with the injured ankle elevated above the hip. To further minimize swelling, wrap the ankle in an elastic bandage, starting at the toes and working up to the leg.

Seriously consider a medical consultation, especially if pain and swelling persist for more than a few days. Although in most cases, an X-ray or M.R.I. is not needed to make an accurate diagnosis, the injury could be more serious than a simple sprain. Ask about physical therapy, which can strengthen the joint and help prevent reinjury.

Most important of all, don’t rush back into activity before healing is complete and normal, pain-free range of motion has been restored. Reinjuring the ankle can result in permanent pain and disability and the health consequences noted above.

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Meet the Ultra-Fat, Super-Cushioned Running Shoe

Photo

Credit Hoka One One

Can fat-soled shoes that appear to have been constructed in part from marshmallows help you run better? The first study of a new kind of thickly cushioned running shoe suggests that this type of footwear may not make running any easier. But it probably also will not make it harder. And nobody knows yet whether these maximalist running shoes, as they’re called, are the answer to preventing the painful injuries that sideline as many as 90 percent of runners at some point.

Anyone who hangs out with distance runners has doubtless noticed the sudden popularity of these shoes, which provide two or three times as much foam padding between the foot and the pavement as most running shoes. The voluptuous Hoka One One shoes are perhaps the most recognizable of the new maximalist footwear, but almost every athletic shoe company offers models now with similarly extreme padding.

Maximalist shoes would seem to be a fervent reaction to and rebuke of the other recent fad in running-related footwear, which consisted of minimalist or barefoot-style shoes that provide little if any cushioning.

But according to John Mercer, a professor of biomechanics at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas, and senior author of the new study, both types of footwear were developed in response to the same concern: the desire to prevent running injuries.

Many hoped that barefoot-style shoes, by removing most padding, would change how people run in beneficial ways. Researchers had noted that people who grow up running barefoot (which means, mostly, young Kenyan runners) typically strike the ground near the middle or front of their foot and tend to have relatively few injuries. Perhaps, the researchers speculated, that style of running would result in fewer injuries for the rest of us.

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The Clifton 2 is a thick-soled running shoe made by Hoka One One.

The Clifton 2 is a thick-soled running shoe made by Hoka One One.Credit Hoka One One

So some runners began wearing flat, minimalist shoes that mimic running barefoot.

But the results were not altogether salutary. No agency collects data about running injuries, but anecdotal reports suggest that quite a few barefoot-style runners wound up getting hurt, in part because their feet and legs were unused to the new patterns of pounding that occur when shoes provide little or no cushioning.

Human nature being what it is, people then turned to shoes with far more cushioning than had been used in running shoes before.

“I first saw these extremely cushioned shoes being worn by ultra-runners and trail runners” covering long distances, Dr. Mercer said. More recently, less intense runners have begun wearing the maximalist shoes, he said.

These shoes promise plush comfort without a decrease in athletic performance, Dr. Mercer said. Rather surprising (to me), most maximalist shoes weigh about the same as thinner models, Dr. Mercer said, because the foam used for cushioning has a cotton-candy airiness.

However, these shoes are still so new that scientists had not yet examined their effects on how people run.

So for the new study, which was presented last week at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in Boston, Dr. Mercer and his colleagues asked 10 experienced runners to eschew their usual shoes for a few days.

At the university’s human performance lab, the runners donned alternately an average pair of running shoes and a pair of maximally cushioned shoes. They ran in each type of shoe at three different speeds and two different inclines on a treadmill, while wearing a mask that measured precisely how much oxygen the runner was taking in. Each run lasted eight to 10 minutes.

If shoes make it more or less difficult to run, Dr. Mercer said, the amount of oxygen that a runner wearing those shoes breathes in should commensurately rise or fall.

As expected, the runners all gasped in far more oxygen when they ran at higher speeds and increased slopes. But their footwear did not affect their oxygen intake. The runners required about the same amount of oxygen at the various paces and inclines whether they wore super-fat or average shoes.

In other words, the maximalist shoes did not make running more tiring. But they also did not make it easier.

The results might encourage some comfort-loving runners, like me, to consider trying the fat-soled shoes.

But this study was quite small-scale and did not address the pressing issue of injuries. No one knows at this point whether wearing maximalist shoes will keep people from getting hurt, Dr. Mercer said. The shoes might, for example, turn out to contribute to certain injuries if their added height makes runners less stable or less able to feel and respond to changes in the ground beneath them.

Dr. Mercer and his colleagues hope to study injury patterns from these shoes in the future.

For now, the broader import of the study’s findings could be that shoes may matter less for running ease than many of us might expect. So if you like your current shoes, stick with them. If, however, you do wish to try maximally — or minimally — cushioned shoes, visit your local running specialty store and wear a pair for a jog around the block to judge whether you enjoy how they feel.

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